Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2020, Page: 40-46
Review on the Role of Viral Structural Proteins on the Pathogenecity of Newcastle Disease Virus in Chickens
Takale Worku, Department of Veterinary Laboratory, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia
Ibsa Teshome, Department of Veterinary Laboratory, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia
Received: Jan. 22, 2020;       Accepted: Jun. 23, 2020;       Published: Jul. 28, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajz.20200302.12      View  246      Downloads  36
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Avulavirus has a nonsegmented negative-sense RNA genome consisting of six genes (3′-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5′). The six viral structural proteins play crucial role for the pathoginecity of the Newcastle diseases virus. Fusion protein cleaved by host protease enzyme from the precursor F0 glycoprotein to active F1 and F2 which are responsible for cell fusion and allow the entry of the virus to the host cell. Fusion protein has long been recognized as the primary determinant of virulence for NDV. Haemagglutinin neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein has both haemagglutinating and neuraminidase activities which are responsible for attachment of virus to the host cell receptors and receptor destroying activity. M protein is thought to regulate the balance between viral replication and transcription and inhibit host protein synthesis that result Newcastle disease virus pathogenicity. The viral replication complex which comprises nucleocapsid protein (NP), phosphoprotein (P) and large polymerase protein (L) enhance viral replication that increase viral virulence. These proteins in combination play key roles in the pathogenicity of NDV. The objective of this seminar is to review the importance of Viral structural proteins on pathegenicity of Newcastle disease virus in chickens. A number of techniques have been used to assessing and quantify the pathologenicity of ND viruses in vivo, such as the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI), the intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) and the mean death time in eggs (MDT). Determining the molecular basis for pathogenicity and virulence is an important step in both diagnostics and research and helps to identify strains that are likely to cause severe disease and to control NDV which cause severe economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Farther investigation which provide a more complete understanding about the molecular basis or viral proteins that responsible for pathogencity of NDV and more effective preventive approach for the disease is recommended for the feature.
Newcastle Diseases Virus, Viral Structural Proteins, Pathogencity
To cite this article
Takale Worku, Ibsa Teshome, Review on the Role of Viral Structural Proteins on the Pathogenecity of Newcastle Disease Virus in Chickens, American Journal of Zoology. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2020, pp. 40-46. doi: 10.11648/j.ajz.20200302.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Anis Z, Morita T, Azuma K (2013): Comparative Study on the Pathogenesis of the Generated 9a5b Newcastle Disease Virus Mutant Isolate Between Chickens and Waterfowl. Vet. Pathol; 50: 638-647.
Aschalew Z, S Bewket, R Behnke (2011): New Castle Disease (ND). In Ethiopian Animal Health Year Book. Animal and Plant Health Regulatory Directorate in Ethiopia 22-23.
Bergfeld, J., Meers, J., Bingham, J., Harper, J., Payne, J., Lowther, S., Marsh, G., Tachedjian, M. and Middleton, D. (2017): An Australian Newcastle disease virus with a virulent fusion protein cleavage site produces minimal pathogenicity in chickens. Vet. Pathol, 54: 649-660.
Cao Y, Gu M, Zhang X, Liu W, Liu X (2013): Complete Genome Sequences of Two Newcastle Disease Virus Strains of Genotype VIII. Genome. Announc1 (1): 01.
Catroxo MHB, Martins AMCRPF, Petrella S, Curi NA, Melo NA (2011): Research of viral agent in free-living pigeon feces (Columba livia) in the City of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, for transmission electron microscopy, Int. J. Morphol. 29: 628-635.
Caupa I, Alexander DJ (2009): Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease a Field and Laboratory Manual. Milan: Springer-Verlag.
Center for food security and public health (CFSPH) (2016): IOWA State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Newcastle Disease Avian Paramyxovirus-1 Infection, Goos. Paramyxovirus infection, Ranikhet disease.
Dimitrov KM, Ramey AM, Qiu X, Bahl J, Afonso CL (2016): Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus). Infection, genetics and and evolution: J. of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases; 39: 22-34.
Dimitrov KM, Afonso CL, Yu Q, Miller PJ (2017): Newcastle disease vaccines—a solved problem or a continuous challenge Vet. Microbiol206: 126–136.
Dortmans J, Koch G, Rottier P, Peeters B. (2011): Virulence of newcastle disease virus: what is known so far? Vet Res; 42: 122.
Dortmans J, Rottier P, Koch G, Peeters B.(2017): The viral replication complex is associated with the virulence of Newcastle disease virus. J. Virol; 84: 10113-10120.
Jin, J. Zhao, Y. Ren, Q. Zhong, and G. Zhang (2016):“Contribution of HN protein length diversity to Newcastle disease virus virulence, replication and biological activities,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6.
Karron RA, Collins PL. (2007): Parainfluenza viruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin Field's Virology. 5th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia1. 526.
Kikuyasu Nakamu, Mitsuru, Toshiki Nakamura, Yu Yamamoto1, Manabu Yamada1, Masaji Mase1 And Kunitoshi (2013): Pathogenesis of Newcastle Disease in Vaccinated Chickens: Pathogenicity of Isolated Virus and Vaccine Effect on Challenge of Its Virus, J. Vet. Med. Sci. 76 (1): 31–36.
Lamb RA, Parks GD. Paramyxoviridae (2007): The viruses and their replication. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE, editors. Field's Virology. 5th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia,: 1449-1496.
Markos T, Abdela N (2016): Epidemiology and Economic Importance of Pullorum Disease in Poultry: A Review. Global Veterinaria17: 228-237.
Mayo MA (2002): A summary of taxonomic changes recently approved by ICTV. Arch Virol 147: 1655–1656.
Muhammad Bashir Bello, Khatijah Yusoff, Aini Ideris, Mohd Hair-Bejo, Ben P. H. Peeters, 6 and Abdul Rahman Omar, (2018): Diagnostic and Vaccination Approaches for Newcastle Disease Virus in Poultry: The Current and Emerging Perspectives j. BioMed Res Inl: 18.
Rottier J. C. F. M. Dortmans, P. J., G. Koch, and B. P. H. Peeters.(2010): The Viral Replication Complex Is Associated with the Virulence of Newcastle Disease Virus. J. virol. 84: 10113-10120.
Namdeo Rajendra Bulbule, Dhananjay Shesharao Madale, Chandraprakash Dinanath Meshram, Ravi Bhagwan Pardeshi, Milind Madhukar Chawak (2015): Virulence of Newcastle Disease Virus and Diagnostic Challenges, 3: 14.
Nesradin Yuneand Nejash Abdela (2017): Update on Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Control Technique of Newcastle Disease. J Vet Sci Technol8: 429.
OIE, (2012): Newcastle Disease (Infection with Newcastle Disease Virus),” Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals: (Mammals, Birds and Bees), vol. 1, pp. 555–574.
Okwor, E. C. and D. C. Eze. 2010. Annual prevalence of Newcastle disease in commercial chickens reared in South Eastern Savannah zone of Nigeria. Res. J. Poult. Sci. 3: 23-26.
Pan W, Song DG, He WQ, Lu HJ, Lan YG, Tong JZ, Gao F, Zhao K (2017): The matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus inhibits host-directed transcription of target genes via interaction with the TFIIH subunit p8. J. Vet Microbiol208: 82–88.
Porotto, M. (2015): The second receptor binding site of the globular head of the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase activates the stalk of multiple paramyxovirus receptor binding proteins to trigger fusion. J. Virol. 86, 5730–5741.
Samal S, Khattar SK, Paldurai A, Palaniyandi S, Zhu X,. (2013): Mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein confer hyperfusogenic phenotypes modulating viral replication and pathogenicity. J. virol.
Sonali Phale (2018): Newcastle Disease Virus: Structural and Molecular Basis of Pathogenicity. Med. Chem; 8: 202-204.
Swanson K, Wen X, Leser GP, Paterson RG, Lamb RA,. (2010): Structure of the Newcastle disease virus F protein in the post-fusion conformation. J. Virology; 402: 372-379.
Susta L, Miller PJ, Afonso CL (2010): Pathogenicity evaluation of different Newcastle disease virus chimeras in 4-week-old chickens. Trop Anim Health Prod; 42: 1785-1795.
Tadelle Dessie, and Yilma Jobre (2004): A Review of The Importance and Control of New castle Disease in Ethiopia, Ethiopian Veterinary Journal, vol. 8, No 1, Ethip. vet. J. Is the official Scientific Organ of The Ethiopian Veterinary Association, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia: 1683-6324, pp 71-79.
Yao H, Hong M (2014): Conformation and lipid interaction of the fusion peptide of the paramyxovirus PIV5 in anionic and negative-curvature membranes from solid-state NMR. J. of the American Chemical Society136: 2611-2624.
Yu XL, Shahriari S, Li HM, Ghildyal R (2016): Measles virus matrix protein inhibits host cell transcription. PLoS One11: e0161360.
Zhiqiang Duan, Shanshan Deng, Xinqin Ji, Jiafu Zhao, Chao Yuan and Hongbo Gao1,(2019): Nuclear localization of Newcastle disease virus matrix protein promotes virus replication by affecting viral RNA synthesis and transcription and inhibiting host cell transcription, J. Vet Res, 50: 22.%
Browse journals by subject